Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become one of the biggest threats to the whole world. The human population is at war with the microbiological world, a tenacious opponent that can never be totally vanquished. According to Alexander Fleming
Bacteria are everywhere all around the world even in your skin and in your mouth too. You’ve actually more microorganisms and bacterial cells than other cells in the body.
As we all know, they are increasing day by day, and they are killing people because people don’t have access to highly effective antibiotics to reduce bacteria. Modern medicine is also increasing the risk of antibiotic resistance. That’s why you’ll feel unwell again and that antibiotic won’t be helpful for fighting against that bacteria.
All bacteria are not bad. Some of them are quite helpful for the human body, and they are the most important elements to keep you healthier and boost your metabolism, they help you with indigestion, but they can cause problems if they release chemicals known as toxins which can damage your tissues and parts of your body. After that, they can cause infections like the common cold, strep throat, pneumonia, urinary infection.
Antibiotic resistance is the fact that bacteria survive because of the actions of substances or compounds that were created to kill them.
Bacteria are much smarter than people. Once, they are put in contact with antibiotics. They create mechanisms to escape from the action of the antibiotic, and they become resistant.
So let’s discuss what’s exactly the term of antibiotic resistance.
What’s antibiotic resistance?
If any organism grows in the presence of antibiotics, then it is known as “antibiotic resistance.” It occurs when antibiotics cannot kill bacteria that are present in the human digestive system.
Types of antibiotics resistance
There are two types of antibiotic resistance which are given below
- Antibiotic resistance that occurs naturally
- Resistance that exists over the time
1. Antibiotic resistance in nature
Antibiotic resistance in nature is not very dangerous. Genes of this bacteria move in a vertical way. It may be because of the morphology and anatomy of that bacteria. As they cause resistance in new generations when they inherit antibiotic-resistant bacteria genes.
Examples of natural antibiotics are mentioned below…
- Multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
- Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
- Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) gut bacteria.
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
2. Antibiotic resistance that has developed through time.
Acquiring antibiotic resistance with the passage of time is more dangerous because of its mutations. These bacteria exchange genetic mutations with other bacteria, and they move in a horizontal way.
It is the result of a process in which organisms adapt antibiotics from different mechanisms
Use of antibiotic medicines.
Antibiotic medicines are used to treat bacterial infections which are present in humans and animals.
It mostly affects organisms that are present in the human digestive system. When we don’t get the results of infection by using the first layer of antibiotics, then we need more powerful and expensive medicines. Some important antibiotic medicines are given below…
- Tetra cyclones
Short and long courses
Your doctor has had years of experience. That’s why they usually tell about the quantity and short and long courses of medicine.
For example, if your doctor suggests you take five days of medicine for infection based on the best evidence. But, you feel well, and you left those medicines after only 2 days. It’ll cause the bacteria to fight against the antibiotics.
That’s why you’ll feel unwell again and that antibiotic won’t be helpful for fighting against that bacteria. Therefore, try to follow your health professional advice completely and properly.
Causes of antibiotic resistance bacteria
- Antibiotic resistance is generated by overusing and misusing antibiotics.
- We create resistance when we use antibiotics unnecessarily. These are the situations that frequently happen in hospitals.
For example, it’s very hard for doctors to convince patients that they don’t need antibiotics because they are suffering from depression only.
- Contact with surfaces like door handles and bells.
- Contact with that type of equipment which can be easily touched by a person to person, such as a stethoscope, blood pressure machine, and thermometer.
How to avoid antibiotic resistance?
Several methods to avoid antibiotic resistance are given below…
- Never ever use any antibiotic without the recommendation of a certified health professional.
- Don’t use exploited antibiotics and always follow your doctor’s advice
- Talk to your doctor about how to take antibiotics accurately.
- Try to cover your nose and mouth with a handkerchief while sneezing.
- Deliver the awareness of this danger to the people as much as you can.
- Decrease the danger of infection by washing hands regularly, making food hygienically, and by keeping yourself vaccinated.
- Your antibiotic course must be short based on effective evidence.
- Try to use types of equipment like gloves, gowns, and masks to reduce the danger of bacteria.
- Use facilitated single room with personal toilet.
- Don’t send your children to school if they are unwell.
- Destroy the toilet paper in the toilet or in the bin.
The statistic about antibiotics being overused
50% of the use of antibiotics is unnecessary or inappropriate.
90% of physician visits for colds don’t need antibiotics.
90% of ear infections in kids don’t need medicines.
The thoughtless person playing with penicillin treatment is morally responsible for the death of the man who succumbs to infection with the penicillin-resistant organism.
Top ten things you can do
The things that really helpful for the prevention of antibiotic resistance.
- Ask if you really need antibiotics.
- Know the symptoms.
- Get vaccinated.
- Prepare food safely.
- Choose antibiotic-free food.
- Stay home when sick.
- Practice cough hygiene.
- Wash your hands.
- Have knowledge of the right ways to use antibiotics.
- Beware of using leftover antibiotics.
FAQs about antibiotic-resistant
Is antibiotic-resistant bacteria a health issue?
Yes, because antibiotic-resistant bacteria increase the chances of treatment failure and death. Moreover, it increases the burden of costly medicines.
How do bacteria become resistant?
Most bacteria are naturally resistant. But, other bacteria can also become resistant by lying in these two categories.
- Genetic Mutation
- By taking genes from other resistant bacteria
Which diseases antibiotics don’t treat?
We get some colds and our first reaction is that we need medicine, but antibiotics don’t treat viruses, which include flu, sore throats, and ear infections.
What are the side effects of antibiotics?
Side effects of antibiotics include
- Urine infection
What are the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance?
- Reduce entry/absorption
- Modification of antibiotics
- Modification of the targets
- Efflux pump
In this article, we discussed the types and causes of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which are very harmful nowadays globally. We discussed how we can protect ourselves from antibiotic bacteria which can lead to death.
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