Enzymes are the biological catalysts. They are able of boosting the rate of a chemical response efficiently. Enzymes lower the energy use and remain unchanged once the response is complete. Let’s discuss the role of enzymes in industry and medicine.
Role of enzymes in industry
There are multitudinous role of enzymes in industry, such as
- Food & Dairy industry – Amylase, Protease, Rennin, Lipase, Lactase, Papain, Maltogenic amylase, pectinase
- Brewing industry – Amylase, Glucanases, Proteases
- Paper industry – Amylases, cellulases, ligninases
- Textile industry – Cellulase, Lipase
Several enzymes are functioning in food and dairy industry, such as
A proteolytic enzyme related to pepsin that gelatinizes milk in the stomach. Renin is extracted from the stomach of calves and induces milk to turn into cheese. It separates solid curd and liquid whey.
Lactase is present in the scrape margin of the small intestine. It extracts from yeast and plays role in the digestion of whole milk. Lactose employees in the production of lactose free milk and also involved in the production of ice cream.
Extensively distributed in biological world, protease hydrolyses the specific peptide bond to induce parak-casein and macro peptides. Protease is highly important in the production of cheese. It also imparts acrid flavor to the cheese and also used in texture.
Enzymes functioning in brewing industry are:
In brewing industry, protease works to break up the larger proteins which enhances the block retention of beer and reduces mist. Protease works to give the nodule with amino acid nutrients that yeast can use. In completely modified malts, these enzymes function during the malting process.
Beta glucanase represents a group of carbohydrate enzymes which breakdown glycosidic bonds within beta-glucan. It aids in filtration and brewing.
It converts starch to dextrins in producing sludge syrup. Amylase solubilizes carbohydrates found in barley and other cereals used in brewing. It decreases the time needed for mashing.
Enzymes working in baking industry such as:
1. Maltogenic amylase
This enzyme involves in flour supplement and has anti staling effect. It modifies starch while utmost of the starch starts to gelate. Amylase results in starch grains becoming more flexible during storehouse
Pectinase prevents pectin from forming haze to get clear result. It plays an effective role in the extraction of color and juices from fresh fruit. Pectinase breaks down pectin and releases methanol, which in high quantities is dangerous.
Role of enzymes in meat industry include:
It cleaves the bond that holds the amino acids together. Protease also tenderizes muscle fiber by breaking piecemeal the protein.
Also used as meat tenderizer papain is present in papaya. This enzyme can purify and sell in powder or liquid conformation.
Role of enzymes in cloth industry are most important for desizing, biopolishing – de pilling, bio scouring. Enzymes are an essential stage of all cloth processing. Size can be removed from fabric before finalizing the pretreatment process. It is necassary before dyeing, printing and finishing fiber. Cellulase is used in Biopolishing – de pilling which is a finishing process that enhances fabric quality by lowering the pilling tendency and fuzziness of cellulose knitted fabrics.
Bio scouring is a process by which pectinase is used to remove pectin and waxes selectively from the cotton fiber. Bio scouring uses pectinase and lipase. Pectinase hydrolyses pectin present in cotton as a non-cellulosic contamination. Lipase is important to remove oil patches from filaments.
Roles of enzymes in paper industry are:
- Amylase – degrade starch to lower density, assisting sizing.
- Xylanases – reduce bleach required for bleaching.
- Cellulases – smooth filaments, enhance water drainage, and promote essay junking.
- Lignin degrading enzymes – remove lignin to soften paper.
Role of enzymes in Medicine
Enzymes have a large number of applications in medical field because of their affinity, explicitness, catalytic, and multiple targets features.
Enzymes can be used in the field of drug in following ways:
i. Medicine making
iii. Analytical and diagnostic
iv. Medicine delivery
1. Medicine making
Enzymes replace chemicals for effective functioning. Chiral center is important in medicine synthesis. Enzymes can yield pure and chiral granules. About half of the medicines are made by enzymes.
2. Theraputic use
In therapuetic application, enzymes can add to the drugs for the purpose of metabolism, infection and complications, allergy and inflammation, and cancer. For metabolism, amylase, protease, deworming by papain, lipase, and prolactazyme are important.
3. Diagnostic use
Enzymes secreted by organs in the blood can be operated to diagnose disorders of liver, heart, and kidney. Two kinds of enzymes are present, such as plasma specific, and plasma non-specific. Enzymes used for diagnosis are:
- Alkaline phosphatase
- Aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT)
- Alanine aminotransferase (SGPT)
- Lactate dehydrogenase
- Creatinine kinase
- Gastric enzymes
- Glucose oxidase
- Creatinine phosphokinase
Alanine aminotransferase is present in plasma and tissues. Its high degrees indicate liver damage. Normal degrees are 20-60 IU/ L. High level of aspartate aminotransferase can cause liver damage. It is present in blood coming by liver. Other organs like heart, order and brain also make this enzyme. Normal degrees of aspartate aminotransferase are 6-34 IU/ L in males and 8-40IU/ L in females.
4. Drug delivery
For drug delivery, enzymes can play an important role in the delivery of drugs. For example, Hyaluronidase enzyme is effective for the proper penetration into the tissues.
Related: Spring: Clean Your Medicine Cabinet
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