Health & Fitness

Polycystic Kidney Disease: Everything You Need to Know

all about polycystic kidney

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a hereditary disorder in which your kidneys develop multiple fluid-filled cysts. Unlike the harmless kidney cysts that may form later in life. PKD cysts can change the shape of your kidneys, including making them considerably larger.

PKD is a type of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that causes kidney function to decrease and can eventually result in renal failure. Other consequences or difficulties associated with PKD include high blood pressure, liver cysts, and blood vessel problems in the brain and heart.

Is polycystic kidney disease divided into different types?

Polycystic kidney disease is divided into two types:

The most frequent form of PKD is autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). It’s most commonly detected between the ages of 30 and 50 in adults. ADPKD is most commonly diagnosed between the ages of 30 and 50. However, it can also arise in early childhood or adolescence.

ARPKD (autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease) is an uncommon variant of PKD that is also known as infantile PKD. It results in abnormal kidney development during pregnancy or shortly after birth. If a person has only one gene for ARPKD, they will not have symptoms. ARPKD is caused by the inheritance of two genes, one from each parent.

ARPKD can divide into four types:

  • At birth, the perinatal form is present
  • Within the first month of life, the neonatal form appears
  • When a youngster is 3 to 12 months old, the infantile form appears
  • The juvenile appears once the youngster has reached the age of one year.

What other organs are affected by PKD except for the kidney?

PKD can affect organs other than the kidney. However, the persons with PKD, cysts in the liver, pancreas, spleen, ovaries, and large bowel are common. The brain and heart can both affect by PKD. Aneurysms can occur If PKD affects the brain. A burst aneurysm is a swelling blood artery that can cause a stroke or possibly death. The valves of the heart can become floppy as a result of PKD, resulting in a heart murmur in certain people.

What are the signs and symptoms of PKD?

Many patients with PKD go years without experiencing any of the disease’s symptoms. Cysts often grow to a diameter of 0.5 inches or greater before causing symptoms. The following are some of the first signs and symptoms of PKD:

  • Pain in the back or side
  • An increase in the abdomen’s size
  • Urine with blood
  • UTI
  • In the chest, fluttering or hammering. A floppy valve in the heart affects about 25% of PKD patients, who may suffer fluttering or hammering in the chest as well as chest pain. These symptoms nearly always go away on their own, but they could be the first sign of PKD.
  • Infections of the bladder or kidneys regularly
  • Blood pressure that is too high. High blood pressure is the most common PKD symptom. Patients with high blood pressure may experience headaches, or their doctors may notice high blood pressure during a routine physical check. It is critical to treat excessive blood pressure since it might lead to renal damage. High blood pressure medication can help slow or even prevent renal failure.
  • Aortic or brain aneurysms can weaken areas in the walls of arteries.
  • Cysts on the liver and in the bile ducts
  • Cysts in the testicles and pancreas
  • Diverticula are also known as pouches or pockets in the colon’s wall. These are small pouches or pockets in the colon’s wall.
  • Blindness or cataracts
  • Liver disease
  • Prolapse of the mitral valve
  • Joint pain
  • Fatigue
  • Nail abnormalities

Cause of polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

Polycystic kidney disease can cause by genetic abnormalities. In the majority of cases, the disorder can pass down to the children by their parents. However, you are born with PKD. At any point in time, genes can mutate or change. People of all ages, races, and ethnicities can affect by PKD. Furthermore, both men and women are affected.

Polycystic Kidney Signs And Symptom
Polycystic Kidney Signs And Symptom

What are the signs and symptoms of ADPKD?

The following are some of the symptoms of ADPKD:

  • Headaches
  • Hematuria blood in the urine)
  • Blood pressure is too high
  • Back or side pain is a common complaint

What are the signs and symptoms of ARPKD?

The following are signs that a fetus or infant may have ADPKD:

  • Enlarged Kidneys
  • Growth Failure
  • A low level of amniotic fluid in the womb could indicate that the kid isn’t making enough urine

How can you know if you have PKD?

Since ADPKD and ARPKD are inherited diseases, your doctor will inquire about your family medical history. They may first order a complete blood count to check for anemia or symptoms of infection. Moreover, a urinalysis to see if your urine contains blood, germs, or protein. However, to diagnose all three types of PKD, your doctor may use imaging tests to look for cysts in the kidney, liver, and other organs. The following imaging studies use to diagnose PKD:

  • Ultrasound of the abdomen: This noninvasive test looks for cysts in your kidneys using sound waves.
  • Abdomen CT scan: Smaller cysts in the kidneys can detect using this test.
  •  MRI scan of the abdomen: The MRI uses powerful magnets to capture your body see the structure of your kidneys and look for cysts.
  • An intravenous pyelogram is a type of pyelogram that can perform on a patient. A dye can use in this examination to make your blood vessels appear more clearly on an X-ray.

Treatment for PKD:

Treatment for PKD aims to manage symptoms while avoiding consequences. The most crucial aspect of treatment for high blood pressure is to keep it under control.

The following are some possible treatment options:

  • Except for ibuprofen. It will never suggest because it can make kidney conditions worse
  • Medicine for high blood pressure
  • Antibiotics for the treatment of urinary tract infection
  • Low sodium diet
  • Diuretics use to help in the removal of excess fluid from the body
  • Cyst surgery to drain cysts and reduce pain

Dialysis and kidney transplantation may require advanced PKD that causes renal failure. One or both kidneys may need to be removed.

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